|| 1 Zima, Peter V
What is theory? : cultural theory as discourse and
dialogue / Peter V Zima.-- Jaipur: Rawat Publications,
xii, 283p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9788131604656.
001 ZIM 138972
This book re-examines the most important theoretical
debates of the twentieth-century engaging with the
critical work of Adorno, Horkheimer and Bakhtin and
offers an alternative concept relating contradictory
theoretical positions to one another in order to test
them in systematic confrontation.
** Dialogical Theory, Theory, Cultural Theory
|| DATA PROCESSING and COMPUTER SCIENCE
|| 2 Marinescu, Dan C
Cloud computing : theory and practice / Dan C Marinescu.-
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013.
xvii, 396p. 23cm.
ISBN : 9780124046276.
004.678 MAR 139101
This book highlights the overview of cloud computing,
including delivery models and services, ethical issues,
and major challenges for both users and cloud service
** Cloud computing, Internet programming
|| SPECIAL COMPUTER METHODS
|| 3 Hansen, Derek L
Analyzing social media networks with NodeXL : insights
from a connected world / Derek L Hansen, Ben Shneiderman
and Marc A Smith.-- Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011.
xv, 284p. 27cm.
ISBN : 9780123822291.
006.312 HAN 139102
This book provides a basic introduction to social network
analysis, followed by practical instruction and examples
on gathering data from online sources, importing into
Excel, and then analyzing the data through Excel. It will
be important for promoting research in the area for those
in information science, sociology, cultural studies,
virtual community, and e-commerce.
** NodeXL, Data mining -- Computer programs, Information
visualization -- Computer programs
|| SOCIOLOGY and ANTHROPOLOGY
|| 4 Madan, T N (ed)
Sociology at the university of Lucknow : the first half
century (1921-1975) / T N Madan.-- New Delhi: Oxford
University Press, 2013.
xiv, 396p. 22cm.
(Oxford in India readings in sociology and social
ISBN : 9780198080374.
301.0954 MAD 138951
The book has brought together and discussed select
contributions of four major Lucknow University scholars and
their effort for synthesizing between Indian(Hindu,
Buddhist, Muslim) and Western modes of social thought.
** Sociology -- India -- History, Lucknow University
|| SOCIAL INTERACTION
|| 5 Boyd-Barrett, Oliver (ed)
Approaches to media : a reader / Oliver Boyd-Barrett and
Chris Newbold.-- Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2012.
xiv, 562p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9788131605011.
302.23 BOY 138956
This book presents in one accessible volume a wealth of
influential sources charting the major different
approaches to the study of media and mass communication.
It also proves an invaluable resource for students and
scholars seeking to gain an understanding of the variety
of ways in which the study of the mass media has been
approached during this century.
** Mass media -- Research, Media
6 Albarran, Alan B
Management of electronic and digital media / Alan B
Albarran.--5th ed-- Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning
xxii, 307p. , 23cm.
ISBN : 9781111836856.
302.23068 ALB 139008
This book helps to understand the complex contemporary
world of electronic and digital media management.
** Mass media -- Management, Digital media -- Management
|| SOCIAL GROUPS
|| 7 Chandra, Seema
Social perspective of caste system / Seema Chandra.-- New
Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215806.
305.51220954 CHA 138988
This book highlights natural experiment- the 1956
reorganization of Indian states along linguistic lines-
to demonstrate that the number and nomenclature of castes
has significantly changed in linguistically matched
villages at the borders of these states. It also tells
that the caste system is not stable but a pliable
institution- endogenous to political change.
** Caste -- India, India -- Social conditions
8 Singh, Sinderpal
India in south Asia : domestic identity politics and
foreign policy from Nehru to the BJP / Sinderpal Singh.--
London: Routledge, 2013.
163p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9780415625302.
305.800954 SIN 139025
The book argues that particular continuities and
disjunctureès in Indian foreign policy are linked to the
way in which Indian elites articulated Indian identity in
response to the needs of domestic politics. It also
highlights the manner in which these state elites
conceive Indiaès region and regional role depends on
their need to stay in tune with domestic identity
** Group identity -- India, Elite (Social sciences) --
India, India -- Foreign relations
|| CULTURE and INSTITUTIONS
|| 9 Storey, John (ed)
What is cultural studies? : a reader / John Storey.--
Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2012.
xii, 387p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9788131605486.
306.07 STO 138971
The books is an ideal foundation for students new to
cultural studies. It has been collected in chronological
order to allow the reader to map the development of the
field. It also provides a fascinating perspective on the
past, present and possible future of cultural studies.
** Culture -- Study and teaching, Culture, Culturele
10 Stuckler, David
The Body economic: why austerity kills / David Stuckler
and Sanjay basu.-- London: Allen Lane, 2013.
xxi, 216p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9781846147838.
306.3 STU 139011
The book synthesizes quantitative data, historical cases,
personal narratives, and sociological and clinically
informed analyses about the effects of investing, or
failing to invest, in public health safety nets. It
investigates the causes of adverse health outcomes in
populations from the United States to the Soviet Union to
Greece, Iceland, and the UK.
** Economics -- Sociological aspects, Social justice,
Financial crises -- Social aspects
11 Murphy, Mark (ed)
Social theory and education research : understanding
Foucault, Habermas, Bourdieu and Derrida / Mark Murphy.--
London: Routledge, 2013.
x, 216p. 23cm.
ISBN : 9780415530149.
306.43 MUR 138950
This book expertly rectifies the omission in the
educational literature, and delivers a text that is both
advanced and accessible, offering the education
practitioner/researcher a suitable guide to assist their
acquisition and application of social theory.
** Foucault, Michel, 1926-1984 -- Political and social
views, Habermas, Jurgen -- Political and social views,
Bourdieu, Pierre, 1930-2002 -- Political and social views
Derrida, Jacques -- Political and social views,
|| 12 Yadav, Hridai R (ed)
Village information system for development planning :
innovation and infrastructure / Hridai R Yadav.-- New
Delhi: Concept Publishing, 2013.
xx, 324p. 22cm.
ISBN : 9788180699429.
307.1412091724 YAD 138970
This book highlights the innovation, information system
for Natural Infrastructure and Socio-Economic and
Institutional Infrastructure for Village Development
Planning. It also discusses implementation of various
rural development and health programs in detail.
** Rural development projects -- Geographic information
systems -- Developing countries -- Congresses, Rural
development projects -- Geographic information systems --
India -- Congresses, Infrastructure (Economics) --
Geographic information systems -- Developing countries --
13 Cumbers, Andy (ed)
Clusters in urban and regional development / Andy Cumbers
and Danny MacKinnon.-- London: Routledge, 2013.
xvii, 232p. 24cm.
(Urban studies monographs).
ISBN : 9780415568418.
307.1416 CUM 138957
This book draws upon evidence from a broader range of
cities and regions to help fill some important gaps in
our knowledge of how clusters operate within the
contemporary global economy.
** Industrial policy, Industrial clusters, Urban policy
14 Kumar, S
Rural sociology / S Kumar.-- New Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215684.
307.72 KUM 138987
This book illustrates an underlying premise of
theoretical arguments is that socializing at work, from
greetings and small talk to off-site gatherings, takes
place in the context and as a byproduct of the routine
activities in which workers engage to get their jobs
done, and thus depends on the organization of work, the
structures and processes that guide the completion of
** Sociology, Rural, Country life
|| THE POLITICAL PROCESS
|| 15 Singh, V K
The Dynamics of the political parties in Asia / V K Singh
-- New Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215967.
324.2095 SIN 138976
This book provides comparative information on party
practices in order to aid party reform efforts. It
concentrates to define political corruption usually begin
by identifying a normative standard for political
behavior and then determining what conduct deviates from
** Political parties -- Asia
|| INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
|| 16 Saalman, Lora (ed)
The China-India nuclear crossroads / Lora Saalman.-- New
Delhi: KW Publishers, 2013.
x, 218p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9789381904824.
327.54051 SAA 139016
This is the first serious book by leading Chinese and
Indian experts to examine the political, military, and
technical factors that effect Sino-Indian nuclear
relations. It presents a comprehensive framework through
which China and India can pursue enhanced cooperation and
minimize the unintended consequences of their security
** China -- Foreign relations -- India, India -- Foreign
relations -- China, Nuclear weapons -- Government policy
|| 17 Vittal, N
Corruption in India : the roadblock to national
prosperity / N Vittal.-- New Delhi: Academic Foundation,
188p. , 22cm.
ISBN : 9788171882878.
330.9 VIT 138995
This book mostly concentrates not only social roots of
corruption and the impact of corruption which is a
roadblock for national prosperity but also suggested what
could be done by citizens to fight corruption.
** Political corruption -- India, India -- Politics and
government, Political corruption
18 D-Costa, Anthony P (ed)
A New India? : critical reflections in the long twentieth
century / Anthony P D-Costa.-- London: Anthem Press, 2012
xix, 204p. , 22cm.
ISBN : 9789380601434.
330.954 DCO 138990
This book challenges the notion of a -new- India, not by
dismissing it as an imagined India, but by engaging in
the debate as to what constitutes the new. It
acknowledges that India is changing remarkably, while
also acknowledging that in the overzealous enthusiasm
about the new India there is collective amnesia about the
other, older India. It also argues that the increasing
consolidation of capitalist markets of commodity
production and consumption has unleashed not only
economic growth and social change, but also introduced
new contradictions associated with market dynamics in the
economic and social spheres such as agrarian crisis, slow
growth of employment, and the persistence of low-caste
** India -- Economic conditions -- 1947, India -- Social
conditions -- 1947, India -- Civilization -- 1947
|| FINANCIAL ECONOMICS
|| 19 Dadabhoy, Bakhtiar K
Barons of banking : glimpses of Indian banking history /
Bakhtiar K Dadabhoy.-- Noida: Random House India, 2013.
xxxix, 478p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9788184003499.
332.10954 DAD 139010
This book highlights a narration of the recommendations
of important committees and commissions which influenced
the course of Indian banking system.
** Banks and banking -- India -- History
|| ECONOMICS OF LAND and ENERGY
|| 20 Sioshansi, Fereidoon P (ed)
Engergy, sustainability and the environment : technology,
incentives, behavior / Fereidoon P Sioshansi.-- Amsterdam
: Elsevier, 2011.
xli, 598p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9780123851369.
333.7916 SIO 139005
This book brings together both subjects into one easy to
understand reference, "Carbon Reduction and Economic
Sustainability" not only clearly explains which option
has the lowest energy/carbon footprint but also which
option would better suit the business in question. It
includes carbon reduction for residential, transport,
industrial and public sectors. It also clearly explains
the economic and environmental engineering aspects of
carbon reduction. Case studies are taken from a number of
** Energy conservation -- Social aspects, Renewable
21 Johansson, Per-Olov
The Economics of evaluating water projects :
hydroelectricity versus other uses / Per-Olov Johansson
and Bengt Kristrom.-- London: Springer, 2012.
xiv, 135p., 24cm.
ISBN : 9783642276699.
333.91 JOH 139003
This book presents research on a kind of water use
conflicts that is becoming more and more common and
important: How to best manage moving water in times of
increasing demand for electricity as well as
** Water resources development -- Cost effectiveness,
Water use -- Cost effectiveness. Business and Economics /
Real Estate / General
22 Harris, Leila M (ed)
Contemporary water governance in the global south :
scarcity, marketization and participation / Leila M
Harris, Jacqueline A. Goldin and Christopher Sneddon.--
London: Routledge, 2013.
xv, 263p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9780415657990.
333.910091724 HAR 139007
The book interrogates ideas of water crisis and scarcity
in the context of bio-physical, political, social and
environmental landscapes to better understand how ideas
and practices linked to scarcity and crisis take hold,
and become entrenched in policy and practice. It also
investigates ideas of marketization and privatization,
increasingly prominent features of water governance
throughout the global South, with particular attention to
the varied implementation and effects of these governance
** Water-supply -- Developing countries -- Management,
Water resources development -- Developing countries,
Water rights -- Developing countries
|| 23 Baker, George P
The New financial capitalists : Kohlberg Kravis Roberts
and the creation of corporate value / George P Baker and
George David Smith.-- Cambridge: Cambridge University
ISBN : 9780521642606.
338.830973 BAK 139213
This book focuses on KKR-s founding, evolution, and
innovations as ways to understand issues in modern
American business. It defines KKR as a unique form of
enterprise-one that subscribes to a set of alternative
perspectives on business and value creation. It bridges
the gap between public perception and academic knowledge
of the leveraged buyout, a crucial phenomenon of modern
** Consolidation and merger of corporations -- United
States -- Finance, Leveraged buyouts -- United States,
Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Co
24 Nissanke, Machiko (ed)
Aid as handmaiden for the development of institutions : a
new comparative perspective / Machiko Nissanke and
Yasutami Shimomura.-- New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
xiii, 261p. 22cm.
ISBN : 9781137023476.
338.91 NIS 138872
The book examines aid effectiveness in a broader context
of institution development in the two regions. It offers
a new perspective on the institutions-development nexus,
alternative to the conventional one with its emphasis of
an inevitable institutional convergence to a monolithic
universal model. It argues that socially and politically
sustainable development involves institutional innovation
by developing endogenous institutions, firmly embedded in
a local social-political system.
** Economic assistance -- Africa, Sub-Saharan, Economic
assistance -- Southeast Asia, Associations, institutions,
etc. -- Developing countries
25 Vaidyanathan, A
India-s evolving economy : puzzles and perspectives / A
Vaidyanathan.-- New Delhi: Academic Foundation, 2013.
348p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9788171889921.
338.954 VAI 139026
This book presents essays on growing divergence between
agri-culture and the rest of the economy, growth of
tertiary sectors and FCI, poverty alleviation and
equitable distribution, widening financial sector, rapid
growth of gold imports and their implications, role of
the politics, politicians, decentralization and
institutions for management of common pool resources, and
importance of reliable data for informed policy making
and public debate.
** Economic development-India, India-Economic policy-1991
|| PRIVATE LAW
|| 26 Marinc, Matej
The Economics of bank bankruptcy law / Matej Marinc and
Razvan Vlahu.-- London: Springer, 2012.
xiii, 158p. , 24cm.
ISBN : 9783642218064.
346.0821 MAR 139002
This book shows that a special bank bankruptcy regime is
desirable for the efficient restructuring and liquidation
of distressed banks. It explores in detail both the
principal features of corporate bankruptcy law and the
specific characteristics of banks including the
importance of public confidence, negative externalities
of bank failures, fragmented regulatory framework, bank
opaqueness, and the related asset-substitution problem
and liquidity provision.
** Bank failures -- Law and legislation, Banking law,
|| GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIO
|| 27 Singh, V K
Panchayati raj and rural development / V K Singh.-- New
Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215950.
352.170954 SIN 138986
This book culminates Constitutional Amendment Panchayat
system in India for local self governance which would
initiate political processes leading to leadership
development, empowerment and participation in self-
governance of hitherto marginalized sections of the
** Panchayat -- India, Rural development -- India
|| SOCIAL PROBLEMS and SOCIAL WELFARE IN GENERAL
|| 28 Chandra, Seema
Social problems and social works / Seema Chandra.-- New
Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215813.
361.1 CHA 138989
This book illustrates a social system approach to
management effectiveness is especially appropriate to the
study of processes located in the changing structures of
social systems of over time. It defies the inherent
concerns of superficiality implicit in most methodologies
by providing profound insights into social reality.
** Social problems, Social service
29 Hazra, Anupam
India-s social sector and millennium development goals:
issues, challenges and policy measures / Anupam Hazra.--
Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2013.
231p. , 22cm.
ISBN : 9788131605790.
361.250954 HAZ 139027
This book provides emerging issues and challenges in
social sector. It suggests some comprehensive measures
which will be instrumental in future policy formulation
to ensure a sustainable growth in social sector and
intensifying the country’s efforts towards its MDG
** Social planning -- India, Economic development --
India India -- Social conditions
30 Sujatha, A S
NGO and social development / A S Sujatha.-- New Delhi:
ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215783.
361.77 SUJ 138985
This book tells how Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
have been occupying the role of main service providers
over the past few years and what are their strategies and
activities are of interest in so far as they have an
impact on governmental capacity development in the
** Non-governmental organizations, Social change
|| 31 Kumar, S
Money laundering / S Kumar.-- New Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215837.
364.168 KUM 138984
This book highlights that increasing integration of the
world-s financial system, as technology has improved and
barriers to the free movement of capital have been
reduced. Through money laundering it-s possible to
quickly move their criminally derived cash proceeds
between national jurisdictions, complicating the task of
tracing and confiscating these assets.
** Money laundering
|| 32 Arthur, James (ed)
The Routledge international handbook of education,
religion and values / James Arthur and Terence Lovat.--
London: Routledge, 2013.
xiv, 403p. 25cm.
ISBN : 9780415519199.
370.114 ART 138947
This book provides an authoritative overview of global
issues in region and values, surveying the state of the
academic area in contributions covering a wide range of
topics. It includes emerging, controversial and cutting-
edge contributions, as well as investigations into more
** Religion / Philosophy, Religious education, Values
|| INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE
|| 33 Morrison, Jamie (ed)
WTO rules for agriculture compatible with development /
Jamie Morrison and Alexander Sarris.-- New Delhi:
Academic Foundation, 2012.
xii, 458p. 23cm.
ISBN : 9788171886715.
382.92091724 MOR 138954
The purpose of this book is to make a contribution
towards understanding how WTO trade rules relevant to
agriculture can be structured in a manner compatible with
the development and poverty alleviation objectives of
** World Trade Organization, Agricultural development
projects -- Developing countries -- Finance, Food
industry and trade -- Developing countries -- Finance
|| ENGLISH and OLD ENGLISH LANGUAGES
|| 34 Fontaine, Lise
Analysing english grammar : a systemic functional
introduction / Lise Fontaine.-- Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2013.
ix, 284p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9780521151931.
425 FON 138955
The book approaches grammar in an incremental way,
enabling students to develop grammatical skill in stages.
It is also relevant for experienced readers who are
interested in developing a more systematic approach to
|| PROBABILITIES and APPLIED MATHEMATICS
|| 35 Ching, Wai-Ki
Markov chains : models, algorithms and applications / Wai
Ki Ching and others.--2nd ed-- New York: Springer, 2013.
xvi, 243p. , 24cm.
(International series in operations research and management
ISBN : 9781461463115.
519.233 CHI 139001
This book highlights a new focus on management science,
new applications of the models, and new examples with
applications in financial risk management and modeling of
** Markov processes, Algorithms
|| 36 Browne, John
Seven elements that have changed the world / John Browne.
-- London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2013.
xvii, 279p. 23cm.
ISBN : 9780297869894.
546 BRO 138949
This book vividly describes how seven key elements have
shaped the world around us - for good and for bad. Seven
Elements take an adventure of human passion, ingenuity
** Chemical elements -- Popular works, Technology --
Social aspects, Chemical elements
|| MANAGEMENT and AUXILIARY SERVICES
|| 37 Anteby, Michel
Manufacturing morals : the values of silence in business
school education / Michel Anteby.-- Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 2013.
xi, 231p. 23cm.
ISBN : 9780226092478.
650.071174461 ANT 139113
This book is a perceptive must-read for anyone looking
for insight into the moral decision-making of today-s
business leaders and those influenced by and working for
** Harvard Business School -- Faculty -- Social
conditions Socialization -- Case studies
38 Stack, Jack
The great game of business : the only sensible way to run
a company / Jack Stack and Bo Burlingham.-- London:
Profile Books, 2013.
375p. , 22cm.
ISBN : 9781781251522.
650.1 STA 139024
This book tries to strengthen by outlining the system and
describing the implementation process better and by
providing an interactive "Get in the Game" guide.
** Business, Management, Success in business
|| GENERAL MANAGEMENT
|| 39 Pradhan, Sudhakar
Managerial accounting / Sudhakar Pradhan.-- New Delhi:
ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215660.
658.1511 PRA 138983
This book introduces and provides a description of the
main applications accounting and finance applicable to
the role of financial manager which will quickly move
into application and understanding.
** Managerial accounting, Management accounting
40 Carroll, Charles T
Six sigma for powerful improvement : a green belt DMAIC
training system with software tools and a 25-lesson
course / Charles T Carroll.-- Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2013
xlix, 173p. , 29cm. + 1CD.
ISBN : 9781466564695.
658.4013 CAR 139009
This book clarifies the long accepted statistical and
logical processes of Six Sigma and provides a tool that
can be used again and again in projects- removing any
doubts regarding simplicity and "doability".
** Six sigma (Quality control standard) -- Textbooks
41 Chandra, Seema
Entrepreneurship and social media / Seema Chandra.-- New
Delhi: ALP Books, 2013.
ISBN : 9789382215974.
658.408 CHA 138982
** Social entrepreneurship, Social media
42 Isenberg, Daniel
Worthless, impossible, and stupid : how contrarian
entrepreneurs create and capture extraordinary value /
Daniel Isenberg.-- Boston: Harvard Business Review Press,
xvi, 282p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9781422186985.
658.421 ISE 138953
This book presents a completely novel way to approach
business building with the insights and lessons learned
from a worldwide cast of entrepreneurial characters. It
also shows how enterprising individuals from around the
world see hidden value in situations.
** Entrepreneurship, Value, Creative ability in business
43 Rodriques, M V
Effective business communication / M V Rodriques.-- New
Delhi: Concept Publishing, 2013.
xix, 404p. 25cm.
ISBN : 9788180699290.
658.45 ROD 138960
This book aims to discuss the principles and practice of
business communication and to impart to the readers
knowledge and skills of putting these principles into
user creatively, functionally and effectively in the
direction of problem-solving and decision making. It
helps also as a textbook for classes and manual for
** Business communication
44 Montague, Ty
True story / Ty Montague.-- Boston: Harvard Business
Review Press, 2013.
ISBN : 9781422170687.
658.8 MON 138952
This book argues that any business, regardless of size or
industry, can embrace the principles of storydoing. It
also shows why storydoing firms are nimble, more adaptive
to change, and more efficiently run businesses.
** Branding (Marketing), Customer relations, Success in
|| LITERATURE, RHETORIC and CRITICISM
|| 45 Han, Jihee (ed)
World literature and the politics of the minority / Jihee
Han.-- Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2013.
xi, 212p. 22cm.
ISBN : 9788131605769.
809 HAN 138973
This book tries to mark out a literary space in which the
polychromic literatures of -minor- countries and peoples
can be heard, uncaged from the epistemological frame of
the West-s Other. It also invites the reader to take note
of the digital interface system and the consequential
nomadic mode of existence rapidly spreading all over the
** Literature -- History and criticism, Minorities in
|| ENGLISH and OLD ENGLISH LITERATURES
|| 46 Banks, Iain M
Consider Phlebas / Iain M Banks.-- London: Orbit, 1987.
ISBN : 9781857231380.
823.914 BAN 138900
** Fiction in English, 1945- - Texts, Imaginary wars and
battles -- Fiction, Imaginary wars and battles
|| HISTORY OF ASIA
|| 47 Rao, K S Kameswara
Main currents in Indian history : ancient, medieval and
modern (from the beginnings to 1964) / K S Kameswara Rao.
-- Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2011.
xv, 416p. 24cm.
ISBN : 9788131604229.
954 RAO 138967
The book synthesizes open-ended narrative of Indiats long
journey from the earliest to the modern period, includes
all aspects of human life and relations in time and
space. It also summarizes the process and nature of
historical change as perceived by different historians
reflecting the latest trends of historical research of
more than half a century to enable the students and
laymen understand and comprehend this process.
** India -- History